Carolina Cristina Fernandes
Doctorate – Environmental governance for forest recovery: A study for the Amazon Biome
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Jacques Marcovitch
Comission: Profs. Drs. Cláudio Antonio Pinheiro Machado Filho, Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion and Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud Ometto
Class: Ruy Leme, FEA-1
In 2015 Brazil presented a set of measures including forest restoration and reforestation, as part of the intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC) of the Paris Agreement. As well as this initiative, the Brazilian government announced its voluntary contribution to the Bonn Challenge in 2016. Then, in 2017, the National Plan for Native Vegetation Restoration (Planaveg, in Portuguese) was created. With this and other public policies aimed at the forestry sector, including the 2012 Forestry Code, there is a recurrent need to establish governance that promotes integration between these policies, defining goals, responsibilities, and criteria that enable the country to meet national goals and international commitments. The initiatives mentioned above present some convergent objectives: (1) to restore and reforest 12 million hectares of forest for multiple use by 2030 (Paris Agreement); (2) to reforest, restore forests and promote the recovery of 12 million hectares of forest areas by 2030 (Bonn Challenge); and (3) to recover at least 12 million hectares of native vegetation by 2030 (Planaveg). Despite this convergence, these initiatives are implemented differently. Focusing on forest recovery, which is a subset of these initiatives, this research will identify the components of consistent governance, enabling efficient and effective fulfilment of the goals proposed by Brazil within the time limit. The study begins with an analysis of the theoretical framework of forest recovery and reconstitution, which is linked with the recovery of native degraded or altered ecosystem. In this theoretical framework, the role played by climate agreements, recovery and/or reforestation and environmental policy instruments is emphasized. Several definitions of governance – as well as its components – are then analyzed. Among these components, we emphasized leadership, strategy, and monitoring. With the establishment of this framework basis (forest recovery/reforestation and governance), the exploratory and qualitative field research was designed. The methodology of the study involves collecting primary data through a semi-structured interview script based on two dimensions: a) The role played by environmental public policy instruments in forest recovery/reforestation and the viability of its implementation; b) the governance established to fulfil these goals. From the data collected during the field research an association between the components of a consistent governance and the processes and models used to meet the goals related to forest restoration/reforestation was established. Based on this association – collected data and components of consistent governance – we propose the establishment of a Climate Change Regulatory Agency (ARMC, in Portuguese) in order to implement and monitor the implementation of Brazilian forestry policies, already represented by the iNDC, the Bonn Challenge, and Planaveg. To ensure high performance of the proposed governance, it should have a skilled leadership, strategy based on goals and monitoring through indicators related to the main stages of the forest recovery process/reforestation.
*Abstract provided by the author