André Koide da Silva
Doctorate – Business models adopted by car sharing companies in the context of smart mobility: multiple case studies in companies operating in Brazil
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Cesar Alexandre de Souza
Comission: Profs. Drs. Paulo Furquim de Azevedo, Claudio Luiz Marte and Otavio Prospero Sanchez
Class: 217, FEA-5
Smart cities emerged as an alternative in dealing with the difficulties arising from population growth observed in urbanized areas. Among the initiatives proposed by this new approach in urban spaces, smart mobility stands out as an essential service for the operation of cities. It proposes the use of technological resources in order to improve the experience of moving people and cargo, aiming to improve the quality of life of citizens. In this context, the importance of car sharing is highlighted as one of the alternatives to reduce congestion rates, the emission of pollutants and the demand for parking areas; in addition, this service promotes interaction with other transport modes and healthier habits among the individuals who use it. When analyzing the business models of the companies that operate in this market, different modalities are observed: car sharing (round trip), car sharing (one way), car sharing (P2P), carpooling, transport network companies and taxi services. It is also possible to identify a close relationship with collaborative consumption (also called sharing economy), a phenomenon widely exploited since the last decade, which fosters the use or access to goods over property. Thus, users of shared cars can use them without the incidence of the obligations and the fixed costs associated with the possession of these goods. Both paradigms use the Internet, social networks, information systems and technological resources to provide their services and connect users, creating the so-called multisided platforms. These support operation in physical or virtual spaces, connecting different groups of users; thus, by reducing the costs and difficulties of these matches, a favorable environment is provided to carry out the transactions, that is, the car sharing. This PhD thesis applied the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), the MSDO technique, content analysis and cross-case analysis to the business models of 14 organizations operating in the car sharing segment with the purpose of identifying and describing how the components of smart mobility, collaborative consumption and multisided platforms have been incorporated into the operations of these companies through multiple case studies. The results achieved indicated some critical success factors of these business models, among them: analyzing massive data through big data tools, making mobile applications available, implementing physical and logical security features for users of car sharing services, the stimulation of online collaboration and the use of social networks and the operation in a regulated market. Due to asymmetric causality, components associated with failure also emerged, among them: the absence of the use of big data tools to analyze the users' massive data; the unavailability of mobile applications; inefficient physical and logical security features; the adoption of innocuous or absent strategies for solving the critical mass problem in multisided platforms; the difficulty in obtaining the financial resources to make investments in different groups of users and the operation in a market without regulation.
*Abstract provided by the author